When we are deciding how to best improve the world it is helpful to gain a detailed understanding of areas in which additional resources can make the most difference. Areas that appear to be highly promising include global poverty, animal welfare and catastrophic and existential risk. Focusing on global poverty gives us insight into how to improve the life of millions of people who lack access to basic services and economic resources. Understanding animal welfare helps us shed light on the suffering of billions of non-human animals around the world. Investigating catastrophic and existential risk allows us to better grasp the risks that could permanently hinder the flourishing of humanity. Several more areas also seem potentially promising, including work on certain types of political advocacy and research.